My Birthday Menu

Posted On March 14, 2009

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Salad made from lettuce with feta cheese, my favorite salad sauce, and apple slices

Gluten free pizza

Chocolate cake
Ice cream

Fruit flavored soda
Orange juice


Bahais in Iran (part 3)

Posted On March 14, 2009

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4 March 2009

Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi
Prosecutor General
Islamic Republic of Iran
Your Honor,
Your recent announcement regarding the administrative affairs of the Bahá’ís of Iran has
brought to the arena of public debate issues which not only affect the safety and livelihood of
the members of that community but also have profound implications for the future of every
citizen of that esteemed nation.  The steps that have been taken to formulate the response of
the Iranian Bahá’í community to your announcement have surely been communicated to you.
The Yaran and the Khademin, the small groups that have been attending to the spiritual and
social needs of the several hundred thousand Bahá’ís of Iran, the former at the national level
and the latter at the local, have expressed their willingness to bring to a close their collective
functioning.  This decision has been made for no other reason than to demonstrate yet again
the goodwill that the Bahá’ís have consistently shown to the government of the Islamic
Republic of Iran for the past thirty years.

The Universal House of Justice has assured us that the disruption in the functioning
of these groups need not be seen as a cause for concern.  There is no doubt in the minds of
millions of Bahá’ís residing in virtually every country around the world—nor in the minds
of many others who are watching these events with impartiality and who are aware of the
historical development of the Faith—that the Bahá’ís in Iran will find ways of managing the
spiritual life of their community, as they have done for generations over the past one hundred
and sixty-five years of persecution.  However, given the gravity of the accusations leveled
against the Yaran and the Khademin, we feel obliged, as the representatives at the United
Nations of one hundred and seventy-nine National Spiritual Assemblies encircling the globe,
to bring certain fundamental points to your attention in an open letter and request that you
examine them with the sense of fairness they deserve.

In reference to Article 20 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran pertaining
to the rights of its citizens, as well as Article 23 related to freedom of belief, you have stated:
“Adherence to a principle or belief is free [to anyone], but to openly express and proclaim it in
order to cause deviation in the thoughts of others, to manipulate, pretend, disseminate [ideas],
and otherwise attempt to deceive and confuse people will not be permissible.”  Such a statement
tests credulity to an extreme.  It is widely recognized that similar statements have been used by

United Nations Office
866 United Nations Plaza, Suite 120, New York, NY 10017 USA
Telephone: 212-803-2500, Fax: 212-803-2566, Email: Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi

4 March 2009
Page 2

repressive regimes throughout the centuries to justify the arbitrary suppression of conscience
and belief.  The suggestion that it is possible to separate the convictions held by an individual
from their expression in words and action begins an entirely false line of reasoning.  To see its
absurdity one need only ask oneself what it means to have faith if it is not consciously
manifested in one’s relationships with others.  Qualifying the argument by implying that only
those expressions of belief which cause deviation in the thoughts of others are objectionable
may appear reasonable at a first glance.  In reality, of course, it is a means of granting license to
those in authority to suppress whomsoever they wish, for it leaves open the possibility of
labeling any action or comment not to their liking as a cause of deviation in the thoughts of
others.  In any event, the record of the Bahá’ís of Iran is clear in this respect.  They have never
sought to cause such deviation, nor have they ever attempted to deceive and confuse people.
Since you have raised the issue of freedom of belief in the context of the articles pertaining to
the rights of Iranian citizens, knowing full well the Bahá’í record, we can only assume that you
have made curtailment in the functioning of the Yaran and the Khademin a condition for
according the Bahá’ís at least some of the rights which they have been denied for some thirty
years now.

The facts of the matter are, of course, well known to you:

• Following the Islamic revolution in 1979, the Bahá’ís of Iran, who had long been the
victims of periodic outbreaks of violence, the later rounds of which had been instigated
by the notorious SAVAK, were subjected to a fresh wave of persecution.
• In August 1980 all nine members of the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá’ís of
Iran—a national council whose election and functioning are prescribed in the Bahá’í
teachings and which forms part of the Bahá’í administrative structure in all countries—
were abducted and disappeared without a trace.  Undoubtedly they were executed.
• Members subsequently elected to this council, as well as scores of individuals with
influence in the Bahá’í community, including several members of Local Spiritual
Assemblies—councils operating at the local level—were executed by the government
in the years immediately after.
• In response to the announcement made by the Prosecutor General of Iran in 1983
calling for the dismantling of the Bahá’í administrative structure, the National Spiritual
Assembly of Iran dissolved itself and the rest of the administrative structure in the
country as a demonstration of goodwill towards the government.
• Subsequently, ad hoc arrangements were made to tend to the spiritual and social needs of
the 300,000 Bahá’ís in Iran through the formation of the Yaran at the national level and
the Khademin at the local level.
• For some twenty years, government agencies had regular contact with the Yaran and the
Khademin—some times friendly and other times in the form of unreasonably long and
aggressive interrogations—consulted with their members and were entirely aware of
their activities.  The possibility of some degree of dialogue between the Bahá’ís and
government agencies seemed to be emerging.
• During that same period, however, a 1991 memorandum signed by Hujjatu’l Islam
Seyyed Mohammad Golpaygani, then Secretary of the Iranian Supreme Revolutionary
Cultural Council, came to light.  It called for the “progress and development” of the Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi

4 March 2009
Page 3

Bahá’ís in Iran to be “blocked” through a number of specific measures it advocated
and for a plan “to confront and destroy their cultural roots outside the country.”
• While the harassment and ill-treatment of Bahá’ís continued uninterrupted during this
period, they have been taken to new levels of intensity in recent years as certain elements
that have historically been bent on the destruction of the Bahá’í community have assumed
growing influence in the affairs of the country.
• The official campaign to malign the name of the Faith through the mass media—through
newspaper articles and Web sites, through radio and television programs and films—
escalated around 2005; it has proceeded unabated to this day.  There can be little doubt
that systematic steps are being taken to implement the provisions set out in the 1991
• In March 2006 a confidential letter from the Iranian military headquarters, dated
29 October 2005, asking various intelligence agencies and police organizations, in
addition to the Revolutionary Guard, to identify and monitor Bahá’ís around the country,
came to the attention of the UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief,
raising great concern throughout the world for the safety of the Bahá’ís.
• For more than two decades young Bahá’ís were barred from entering university through
an application process that would require them to deny their faith.  Though a modification
in the process, achieved through worldwide public pressure, enabled a few hundred to
register at the start of the 2006–2007 academic year, their hopes of pursuing higher
education were soon dashed.  That same year the Ministry of Science, Research and
Technology issued a letter to eighty-one universities, instructing them to expel any
student known to be a Bahá’í.
• The abovementioned letter was followed by another in April 2007 from the Public
Intelligence and Security Force restricting the involvement of Bahá’ís, already barred
from employment in the public sector, in some twenty types of businesses.  The
document reinforced ongoing efforts to strangle the economic life of the Bahá’í
• In these past few years, the number of Bahá’ís arrested without cause has climbed; the
confiscation of Bahá’í personal property has grown; attacks on Bahá’í homes have
escalated; acts of arson against Bahá’í properties have proliferated; the desecration and
destruction of Bahá’í cemeteries have spread; the sealing of shops owned by Bahá’ís
has increased; refusals of bank loans and business licenses to Bahá’ís have multiplied;
harassment of landlords with Bahá’í tenants has intensified; threats against fellow citizens
who associate with Bahá’ís have mounted; and the vilification of Bahá’í children in their
classrooms by teachers has been on the rise.  That such acts are being systematically
orchestrated city by city is unquestionable.
• Then last year the seven members of the Yaran were imprisoned, one of them in March
and the remaining six in May.  For some time they were held in solitary confinement and
denied access to their families.  Although eventually family members were allowed brief
visits under strict observation, the prisoners have yet to be given access to legal counsel.
The conditions of their incarceration have varied in degree of severity over the course of
the past several months, with the five male members confined at one time to a cell no
more than ten square meters in size, with no bed. Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi

4 March 2009
Page 4

• Finally, after some nine months of imprisonment, during which time not a shred of
evidence could be found linking the members of the Yaran to any wrongdoing, they were
accused of “espionage for Israel, insulting religious sanctities and propaganda against the
Islamic Republic,” and it has been announced that their case will soon be submitted to
court with a request for indictment.
• This announcement was followed almost immediately by news reports which indicated
that you had written to the Minister of Intelligence stating that the existence of the Yaran
and the Khademin in Iran is illegal, while at the same time raising the question of the
constitutional right of Iranian citizens to freedom of belief.  You then made an official
announcement to this effect.


Your Honor, the events of recent years and the nature of the accusations made raise
questions in the mind of every unbiased observer as to the intent behind the systematic
perpetration of injustice against the Bahá’ís of Iran.  Even if there might have been some
misunderstandings about the motives of the Bahá’í community during the early turbulent days
of the revolution, how can such suspicions persist today?  Can it be that any member of the
esteemed government of Iran truly believes the false accusations which have been perpetuated
about the Bahá’ís in that country?  Are not the following facts well known to the authorities in
the various branches of the government?

• In whatever country they reside, Bahá’ís strive to promote the welfare of society.  They
are enjoined to work alongside their compatriots in fostering fellowship and unity and in
establishing peace and justice.  They seek to uphold their own rights, as well as the rights
of others, through whatever legal means are available to them, conducting themselves at
all times with honesty and integrity.  They eschew conflict and dissension.  They avoid
contest for worldly power.
• It is a fundamental principle of the Bahá’í Faith that its followers strictly refrain from
involvement in any partisan political activity, whether local, national or international.
Bahá’ís view government as a system for maintaining the welfare and orderly progress
of human society, and obedience to the laws of the land is a distinguishing feature of
their beliefs.
• To take any action in willful violation of allegiance to one’s own country is explicitly
proscribed in the Scriptures of the Bahá’í Faith.  Adherence to this principle has been
amply demonstrated by Bahá’ís everywhere.
• The Bahá’í administrative structure, which is established in more than one hundred and
eighty countries worldwide, is a means for channeling the energies of Bahá’ís in service
to the common good and for organizing the religious and social affairs of the Bahá’í
community itself.  For Bahá’ís, the concept does not imply in any way the existence of a
political agenda or any kind of interference in the affairs of the government.
• The international headquarters of the Bahá’í Faith is located within the borders of
modern-day Israel as a result of the successive banishments imposed on Bahá’u’lláh in
the mid-nineteenth century by the Persian and Ottoman governments.  Exiled from His
native Persia, Bahá’u’lláh was sent to Baghdad, Constantinople and Adrianople and
finally to the fortress-city of Acre in 1868, eighty years prior to the establishment of the Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi

4 March 2009
Page 5

State of Israel, where He eventually died in 1892.  That Bahá’ís in all parts of the world
are today in contact with the international headquarters of their Faith regarding their
individual and collective affairs is entirely natural and is a well-established fact.
• Bahá’ís have the highest respect for all religions.  Our Writings refer to Islam as “the
blessed and luminous religion of God” and the Prophet Muhammad as “the refulgent
lamp of supreme Prophethood,” “the Lord of creation” and “the Day-star of the world,”
Who, “through the will of God, shone forth from the horizon of Hijaz.”  The station of
Imam Ali is described in terms such as “the moon of the heaven of knowledge and
understanding” and “the sovereign of the court of knowledge and wisdom.”  In the Tablet
of Visitation revealed by Bahá’u’lláh Himself for Imam Husayn, He refers to him as “the
pride of the martyrs” and “the day-star of renunciation shining above the horizon of
• Bahá’ís are exhorted to evince a high sense of moral rectitude in their activities, chastity
in their individual lives, and complete freedom from prejudice in their dealings with
people of every race, class and creed.


In light of these well-established facts, Your Honor, it is difficult to understand how
words such as “manipulative” and “deceitful,” “dangerous” and “threatening,” can be applied to
Bahá’í activity in Iran.  Do you consider dangerous the efforts of a group of young people who,
out of a sense of obligation to their fellow citizens, work with youngsters from families of little
means to improve their mathematics and language skills and to develop their abilities to play a
constructive part in the progress of their nation?  Is it a threat to society for Bahá’ís to discuss
with their neighbors noble and high-minded ideals, reinforcing the conviction that the
betterment of the world is to be achieved through pure and goodly deeds and through
commendable and seemly conduct?  In what way is it manipulative for a couple to speak in the
privacy of their home with a few friends confused by the portrayal of Bahá’ís in the mass media
and to share with them the true nature of their beliefs, which revolve around such fundamental
verities as the oneness of God and the oneness of humankind?  What duplicity is there if a child
at school, after listening to offensive language about the Founder of her Faith Whom she so
loves, politely raises her hand and requests permission to explain to her classmates some of the
teachings she follows?  What deceit is there if a young person, committed to the acquisition of
knowledge and learning, seeks the right from the authorities to enter university without having
to lie about his faith?  What harm is done if several families gather together periodically for
communal worship and for the discussion of matters of concern to them all?  Given that the
human soul has no sex, is it so alarming for someone to express the view that men and women
are equal in the sight of God and should be able to work shoulder to shoulder in all fields of
human endeavor?  And is it so unreasonable for a small group of people, in the absence of the
administrative structures prescribed in their teachings, to facilitate the marriage of young
couples, the education of children and the burial of the dead in conformity with the tenets of
their Faith?

These are but a few examples of the various endeavors for which the Bahá’ís of Iran are
being so grievously persecuted.  It is the right to engage in such activity that has been denied
them for thirty years.
Ayatollah Qorban-Ali Dorri-Najafabadi

4 March 2009
Page 6

Your Honor, many times over these twenty years the Yaran and the Khademin have been
told by government officials that they are in fact protecting the Bahá’í community from those
who regard its members as a negative element in society.  It is true that there may be a small
fraction in any populace who, succumbing to the forces of hatred and enmity, can be incited to
perform acts of cruelty and oppression.  But, in the main, our vision of the Iranian people does
not correspond with the one projected by such officials.  Narrow-mindedness and pettiness are
not the qualities that we attribute to them.  Rather do we see the staunch commitment to justice
evinced by the citizens of one town who petitioned the government when several shops owned
by Bahá’ís were closed without reason.  We see the fidelity shown by the young musicians who
refused to perform when their Bahá’í counterparts were prohibited from playing in a recital.
We see the courage and tenacity of university students who stood ready to prepare a petition
and to forgo participation in examinations that their Bahá’í classmates were barred from taking.
We see the compassion and generosity of spirit exhibited by the neighbors of one family, whose
home was attacked with a bulldozer, in their expressions of sympathy and support, offered at all
hours of the night, and in their appeals for justice and recompense.  And we hear in the voices
raised by so many Iranians in defense of their Bahá’í compatriots echoes from their country’s
glorious past.  What we cannot help noting, with much gratitude towards them in our hearts, is
that a majority of those coming out in support of the beleaguered Bahá’í community are
themselves suffering similar oppression as students and academics, as journalists and social
activists, as artists and poets, as progressive thinkers and proponents of women’s rights, and
even as ordinary citizens.

Your Honor, the decisions to be taken by the judiciary in Iran in the coming days will
have implications that extend well beyond the Bahá’í community in that land––what is at stake
is the very cause of the freedom of conscience for all the peoples of your nation.  It is our hope
that, for the sanctity of Islam and the honor of Iran, the judiciary will be fair in its judgment.
Bahá’í International Community
cc:  Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations

My LOL #2

Posted On March 7, 2009

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Posted On March 7, 2009

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My story

Posted On March 6, 2009

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I am writing a story. It is going to be sci-fi comedy. I would like suggestions. The person who has the idea (I may blend ideas, in which case everyone will get credit) I use will get a copy when I am finished.

old blog

Posted On March 5, 2009

Filed under Uncategorized

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Uh oh. Dammit. Have to have all lines for play memorised on wednesday. On the same day research notes are due. Worst of all, I’m sick.

I feel a headache coming…
Posted by Zach at 11:54:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: school. deadlines
Thursday, January 1, 2009

The Baha’s in Iran (part 2)

More trouble for the Baha’is in Iran:

More Baha’is detained; 26 currently in prison

04:35 pm on Dec 10th 2008

Baha’is have been arrested in Mazandaran province, one in Ghaemshahr
and two in Sari. Their homes were searched and Baha’i materials were
confiscated. The arrests occurred on 18 November and 22 November.

In another case, three Baha’is were arrested and detained in Yasouj
and a nearby town, in the province of Kohgiluyeh va Bouyerahmad. The
detention was in connection with a personal project under which they
provided moral education classes for local children. The attorney they
retained was so intimidated by criticism from judicial officials that
he resigned from the case.

At least 26 Baha’is are currently in jail or prison because of their
religion. The number on a given day is difficult to determine, partly
because authorities sometimes detain people secretly and it can take
days for their families to determine with certainty what has happened
to them.

Also, people are sometimes detained overnight or for several days,
and this only becomes known later. In some cases, Baha’is are detained
but then released on bail after depositing with the court a sum in cash
or surrendering business licenses or titles to property.

Among those in prison are all seven members of a group that saw to
the minimum needs of the 300,000 Baha’is in Iran, and three young
adults in Shiraz whose case was the subject of an internal
investigation — the results of which completely vindicated the

(see source here)

sounds like holiday spirit
The conflicts in the middle east are not settling down for the winter holidays. After all, they (like me) do not celebrate Christmas. But still, you might think (unless you are a little pessimistic)
the Israelis would give the palistinians a break, but, of course, they didn’t. This is the latest bbc heading:

Israeli F-16 bombers have launched a series of air strikes against key targets in the Gaza Strip, killing at least 195 people, medical chiefs say.

see here
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Labels: israel.
Friday, December 12, 2008
my favorite emoticon

Posted by Zach at 5:32:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Thursday, December 4, 2008
my equation
My equation:




Posted by Zach at 7:00:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Geneology of conspiracy theories
agw-conspiracy-20081030.png (PNG Image, 1606×2524 pixels)

Posted by Zach at 7:00:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Friday, November 28, 2008
my equation
My equation:




Posted by Zach at 10:06:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Friday, November 7, 2008
Israel diary
October 23rd, 2008 Thursday in plane, over the great basin.

I am uncomfortable as always in an airplane (going to Schiphol airport in Amsterdam. The noise is very, very annoying. It and the fact that it is stuffy in here is giving me a head-ache. The little boy in front of me is not helping.

October 25th added: PS: Dutch Ketchup is weird. I know because I had a sausage roll at Schiphol airport in-between hurrying, getting lost, and getting very, very confused.

October 25th, 2008 Saturday
Writing for October 24.

Yesterday started for me in the plane, where I was very uncomfortable. In that plane I watched the movie Hancock. Then we reached Tel-Aviv airport. We went to baggage. At baggage claim we waited and waited untill When in the shuttle to Jerusalem I had trouble not going to sleep.

October 25, 2008 Saturday
Jaffa gate hostel, Old City, Jerusalem

Here is what happened:
4:30ish Am: breakfast
12 ish: write previous article
1 ish: Eat out and chess with mom
After that: Try to do the ram-part walk but arn’t allowed.
So we try to go to the dome of the rock, end up in a market-place where we were treated well by two shopkeepers and bought a few things including a hand-done chess set and played chess over dinner.

October 28th, 2008 Monday for October 26, 27, and 29

Oct 26
I woke up at 2 AM. I couldn’t sleep until 3 AM. But I wasn’t asleep.
We got up at 5 AM. We finished packing. After that we went out.
We got a $200 private tour. Then the tour guide showed us his families store…

To put it simple:
Mom could not chose which piece of jewelry to buy and always when it’s like that she decides that she doesn’t want to buy anything. They interpret that as hard bargaining.
Miriam took us to the bus station. I don’t remember what happened after that.

Oct 27
Here is what we did.
1) Wake up.
2) have free breakfast at Rutenburg
3) Go to PRC (the Baha’i pilgrim reception center)
4) Get pilgrim badges
5) Go to bank for money to get health insurance
6) get sushi
7) go to presentation
8) listen to it.
9) Go back to Molada guesthouse.
10) Try to use internet while mom gets her coat at PRC.

Oct 28
Yesterday I woke up at 8:30. We went to breakfast at Rutenburg. I don’t remember what happened next.

Oct 31, 2008

I went to Bahji (Baha’i owned mansion) today.

In the morning mom brought breakfast to me.

Speaker tonight: Cooper Dunbar

Nov 5, 2008

Let me see if I can write anything. OK, do not feel like I can. Let me try again. OK, tired, excited, and can’t remember a thing.
Looking out at the clouds I remember something. It is the names of the mansions. They are Bahji (probably misspelled) and Masraih (also probably misspelled).
Wait a second. Now I remember some stuff. Now I forgot it again because mom had to start arguing with me just when I was remembering.
OK, I am remembering it again. Arrrgh, Mom has interrupted me again!! This is sooo annoying!! She seems to have a thing against me remembering.
We are above the Davis strait. We passed South of Nuuk (major city in Greenland). I got to see part of Greenland. It was totally covered in white. I got several pictures of the view. I am probably going to take a break from writing. I might write later. I will try to write on the next flight.

Nov 7, 2008 added: PS. the flight was 11 hours.

Nov 7, 2008
Ok, I give up. I can remember virtually nothing.
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Thursday, October 23, 2008
Going to israel
Yup, going there. Hoping that I don’t get arrested (yes they arrest kids).

Now, that I am in Israel I’d like to say that it is not as everyone thinks it is.
Posted by Zach at 4:45:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Tuesday, October 21, 2008
Mod releases UFO files
The British ministry of defense has released some of its UFO files. (see here for more)
Posted by Zach at 7:59:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: UFOs
Monday, October 13, 2008
1:09 pm Oakland, California, USA

tendency: sunny
pressure: 29.9inHg
wind:6.4mph to the NNE (22 degrees)
Posted by Zach at 1:09:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Saturday, October 4, 2008
Perimeter and area
Figure perimeter area

square P=4s A=SxS

rectangle P=2l+2w A=lxW

parallelogram P=2b+2s A=BxH

triangle P=s1+s2+s3 A=BxH/2
Posted by Zach at 12:29:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Some compound probability advice
From Saxon math 8/7 (home school):

“The probability of independent events occurring in a specified order is the product of the probabilities of each event.”


“The probability of dependent events occurring in a specified order is the product of the first event and the recalculated probabilities of each subsequent event.”
Posted by Zach at 12:11:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: probability
Tuesday, September 30, 2008
My mom likes to cencor clerihews
I did a clerihew earlier. I did it because I was board. It was about Ken Ham:

There is a man named Ken Ham.
He is such a ham.
His brain is so small
he could fit in a crowded hall.

My mom Instantly labeled it “Backbiting”. Unless it is in the dictionary I won’t listen to the word.
Oh it is. Waaaaaaaaaa.
Posted by Zach at 8:06:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Sunday, September 28, 2008
My Vote
Being a minor, I can’t vote. But if I did what I voted would be influenced by my mom,
the nice, caring, social worker. However, (and this is important) It is not what she would vote.
Prop. 1: YES, I care about our climate.
Prop. 2: YES, I want animals to be treated well.
Prop. 3: (further research needed)
Prop. 4: YES, but maybe NO (depends on circumstances).
Prop. 5: YES, our prisons are overcrowded.
Prop. 6: NO, (see previous)
Prop. 7: YES, I support solar, wind, etc.
Prop. 8: NO.
Prop. 9: YES.
Prop. 10: YES.
Prop. 11: ?
Prop. 12: YES.
Posted by Zach at 9:34:00 AM 1 comments Links to this post
Labels: Voting
Tuesday, September 16, 2008
I have settled it
Atomic number is the number of protons.
Atomic mass is the mass of an atom.
Posted by Zach at 5:39:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Friday, September 12, 2008
Big Bang poem
The Thing
(censored) (censored)
There was once a thing,
it was the only thing,
at least in it’s universe.

Don’t ask what it was.
I don’t know.
All I know is that it was something,
who, what, where, I don’t know.

The thing was small
and very hot
and not to mention,

After I don’t know how long,
it exploded.

When it exploded
it created everything,
from time and space
to the building blocks
of matter.

In the seconds after
the quarks came together
forming the protons
and the neutrons.

In those few seconds
there were things
that don’t exist now
such as negative protons.
But by less than
a minute after
the big explosion
they didn’t exist.

And thats how
the universe
may have started,
but theories
can be proven wrong.
Posted by Zach at 2:24:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Saturday, August 30, 2008
The (cencored) Statement

Part one

People take their beliefs personally so it is only natural that people will feel like they are the ones being challenged when their beliefs are what is being challenged and will act accordingly.

Part two

It is preventable. If the person whose beliefs are being challenged takes into consideration the fact that his beliefs, not him, are being challenged he can bypass the first part of the statement. A Baha’ullah (the

Bahai prophet) quote say how to avoid the effects of the first part of the statement.

“Should any one among you be incapable of grasping a certain truth, or be striving to comprehend it,

show forth, when conversing with him, a spirit of extreme kindliness and good-will. Help him to see and recognize the truth, without esteeming yourself to be, in the least, superior to him, or to be possessed of greater endowments.”

Posted by Zach at 12:54:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Monday, August 25, 2008
Nearly one of seeds science blogs
Here is an email I got today:

Hi (censored),

Thanks for reading ScienceBlogs! The site depends on feedback from our engaged and loyal readers. Thanks, too, for sending along your blog’s information. Rodent’s Blog has now been added to our official inquiry list. We’ll certainly give it a look in the coming days and weeks.

At our inception just two years ago, ScienceBlogs included 14 blogs. Happily, that’s since increased by fivefold. Our larger blogging family generates more dynamic discussions and higher traffic. At the same time, because we want to maintain the site’s accessibility, appeal, and general feeling of community, the number of blogs we feature is ultimately limited.

We receive several dozen inquiries a month from science enthusiasts like you who want to join us, and many -— if not most —- are informative and well-written. But because of our fantastic growth, the few newbies we take on now are often picked based on how they might complement (and distinguish themselves from!) the others in the Sb community.

If we find your blog fits into such a niche, we’ll be in touch soon.

Thanks for your interest and happy reading!
Posted by Zach at 7:03:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: blogs.
Today I was having trouble with my blog. Google blogger wasnt letting me get on my blog with the password that I use for my gmail account. This passord obviously happens my only google password.
Posted by Zach at 7:03:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: passwords
Friday, August 22, 2008
my profile note
Here is my current profile note:

Oakland, California, United States
My real name is (censored). I am (censored) years old. I also got advanced in every subject on my 5th grade star test. View my complete profile

Tell me if you think it is not very good. (in comments please)
Posted by Zach at 7:40:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Thursday, August 21, 2008
a little depressing news
An airplane crashed in western spain. It killed 150 people.
Posted by Zach at 3:06:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: death.
In the paper I saw the astrology section. I looked at the part titled Gemini. I saw a really acurate piece of information. But the rest was wrong.
Posted by Zach at 2:50:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: astrology. bs.
rain in Florida.
Hello readers (if there are any) I am writing from Florida. I got on my great-grandmother’s (Ruth) computer. The wether is unpredictable. It rains for a minute then suddenly stops. Also, it rains five times a day. The rain is warm too. To me (I am from Oakland which is close to San Francisco and much drier and colder than Florida or at least the part I am in.) warm-wetness with all my clothes on is a totally weard and alien sensation. I am used to it in the shower, but outside with all my clothes on (different temperture, too) feals totally wrong.
Posted by Zach at 2:28:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: florida. rain.
Friday, August 8, 2008
Gummy Bear
“Gummy Bear” by Zachary Zimmerle (aka Rachazy)

Gummy Bear sits in the candy tree,
merry merry king of candy is he,
laugh Gummy Bear,
laugh Gummy Bear,
how gay (happy) your life must be.

Gummy Bear sits in the candy tree,
counting all the candy he can see,
wait Gummy Bear,
wait Gummy Bear,
thats not candy, that’s me!

Gummy Bear sits in the candy tree,
eating all the candy he can see,
wait Gummy Bear,
wait Gummy Bear,
save some candy for me.

This song was based on Marion Sinclair’s “Kookaburra”
Posted by Zach at 8:23:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Songs. humor
Thursday, August 7, 2008
John Freshwater: abusive (anti)Science teacher (Part 1)
Here is the first part.

There’s an ugly case brewing in Ohio. A popular middle school science teacher has been ordered to remove his copy of the bible from his desk. On the face of it, I think letting a teacher have a bible on his desk or on his person should not be a problem — it’s nothing but a personal tchotchke, and it’s not worth fighting over. John Freshwater, though, has made it more than an expression of personal preference. He is proselytizing in the public school classroom. Freshwater is responsible for turning this into a church-state separation case; he’s one of those particularly obnoxious Christians who wrap themselves in sanctimony and loudly demand that they have more than a right to believe (a right I would defend), they have a right to tell their students what they must believe, and who uses every opportunity to evangelize in defiance of his professional responsibilities.

The school has a right and an obligation to tell him to knock it off, and if he won’t comply, they should hold him in violation of his contract and fire him. But I wouldn’t have him fired for being a pretentious Christian, only for refusal to do his job.

There’s another reason he should be fired, however, and the school district should take advantage of his intransigence over his stupid bible to kick his sorry ass off the faculty. He’s an incompetent science teacher.

In one class, Freshwater used Lego pieces to describe the beginning of the world. He dumped the pieces, then asked students if the Legos could assemble by themselves, said Joe Stuart, 18, assistant editor of the high-school newspaper.

When Freshwater taught students about electrical current, he used a device to leave a red mark in the shape of a cross on the forearms of some students, Stuart said.

“If it were just about the Bible, I don’t think people would have a problem with it,” Stuart said.

In his evaluations through the 21 years he’s worked for the district, Freshwater has drawn consistent praise for his strong rapport with students, broad knowledge of his subject matter and engaging teaching style.

In 2006, he was instructed to remove from his curriculum a handout titled “Darwin’s Theory of Evolution — The Premise and the Problem.” A parent had questioned its validity and use in a science classroom.

Mr Stuart is wise. It’s not the bible at all. It’s that he’s a deluded creationist teaching lies to students in a science class. Unfortunately, there’s little recourse for expelling bad teachers (and his popularity is not an indication that he’s a good teacher, don’t make that mistake) on the basis of incompetence.

And the cross thing is just plain bizarre. Burning religious symbols into students’ flesh is not a way to teach them about the physics of electricity; what next, will he teach about the chemistry of oxidation reactions by burning heretical students at a stake? Even religious parents in the community are disturbed by this kook:

The fax stated, “We are religious people, but we were offended when Mr. Freshwater burned a cross onto the arm of our child. This was done in science class in December 2007, where an electric shock machine was used to burn our child. The burn was severe enough that our child awoke that night with severe pain, and the cross remained there for several weeks. … We have tried to keep this a private matter and hesitate to tell the whole story to the media for fear that we will be retaliated against.”

These same parents also expressed the key issue in separation of church and state:

Short said it is alleged that Freshwater used his classroom to advance religion and that he teaches his own beliefs from the Bible and not the approved curriculum. In the fax, the parents also said, “We are Christians who practice our faith where it belongs, at church and in our home and, most importantly, outside the public classroom, where the law requires a separation of church and state.”

Freshwater can believe whatever he wants. When he decides to use his public school classroom to shove his beliefs down student throats, he’s in the wrong and should obey the order to keep his class secular. And when his personal beliefs so scramble his judgment that he can’t even teach the evidence and logic of science, his professional duty, fire him.
Posted by Zach at 1:12:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Here is a new one.

DNA (to the tune of TNT by ACDC)

Oi! Oi! Oi! Oi! Oi! Oi! Oi! Oi!

See me divide up in your nucleus on your micro-screen
I’m all of you that you can get
If you know what I mean
Proteins to the left of me, lipids to the right
Aint got no oxy, but I got moxy
Don’t you start a fight

“Cus I’m DNA
I’m Dynamite
(DNA) I’m wound up tight
(DNA) I have secrets to tell
(DNA) I’m in your cells!!!!

I’m Adenine! Guanine! Cytosine!
And Thymine man!
Nitrogen bases, a phosphate group
G binds to C
A binds to T
A double helix plan
I run your life!
I control your cells!
So don’t you mess me around!

Cus I’m DNA!
I’m dynamite
(DNA) And I’m wound up tight!
(DNA) I have secrets to tell
(DNA)I’m in your cells!

Posted by Zach at 1:09:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: DNA. Wierdness.
Wednesday, August 6, 2008
Reptile ‘First time’ dad at 111.
That is the headline. A reptile has, for the first time become a dad. Here is a little excerpt of the BBC article on it.

A rare 111-year-old New Zealand reptile is set to become a father, possibly for the first time.

Here is some more.

Henry, a tuatara with prehistoric origins, had previously shown no interest in females during nearly 40 years in captivity, say keepers.

But his 80-year-old partner, Mildred, laid 12 eggs in mid-July, 11 of which are due to hatch in about six months.
Posted by Zach at 8:03:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Tuesday, August 5, 2008
the p53rd psalm
Here it is, the p53rd psalm. I found it at Pharyngula.

The p53rd Psalm

p53 is my shepherd, I shall not cycle
It maketh me to lie down in G1
It leadeth me beside still nucleotide pools
It restoreth my genome
It leadeth me past the restriction point for replication’s sake
Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of the cobalt irradiator
I shall fear no gamma rays, for thou art Guardian of the Genome
Thy amino and thy carboxy termini, they comfort me
Thou maintainest my genomic stability in the presence of mine enemies
Thou annointest my nucleus with p21/WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1/Pic1
my cyclin dependent kinases overflow
Surely pRb phosphorylation and E2F activation shall follow me
all the cycles of my life
and I shall dwell in a non-tumorigenic state until senescence.

Posted by Zach at 6:04:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Wierdness.
John Freshwater: abusive (anti)Science teacher (Part 2)
Here it is.

John Freshwater, the Ohio science teacher who uses his classroom to proselytize and promote creationism, is following a familiar tactic: LIE.

Supporters of a middle school science teacher facing firing for burning crosses into students’ arms were in the majority at a central Ohio school board meeting.

They gave John Freshwater a standing ovation when he rose to speak Monday night during the two-hour Mount Vernon school board meeting. He attended the meeting to say he has never branded or burned anyone.

This reminded me of chapter 5, “Never said it”, in Lauri Lebo’s excellent book on the Dover trial, The Devil in Dover(amzn/b&n/abe/pwll). This is the part of the book where the lawyers for the prosecution are trying to get an injunction to prevent the school board from going through with their attempts to promote ID in the classroom, and they bring in the defendants, Buckingham, Bonsell, and others, to corroborate the arguments documented in the press that they were looking for textbooks that blended evolution and creationism. And to the obvious consternation of the lawyers, they all simply lied and claimed that they’d never said it and the reporters had all made everything up. It was patently dishonest, but it essentially blocked the injunction and let them go ahead with their scheme.

Don’t worry, the chapter ends on a good note: Lebo gets footage from a local television that shows they lied, which will later come to good use in the actual trial.

It’s always disturbing to see how readily these creationists will lie for their own ends, and how happily their supporters will cheer for the lie.
Posted by Zach at 10:30:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Abuse. Christianity.
The clones of Booger.
A pet owner has payed US$50,000 for a firm to make five clones of her dog booger. The BBC has an article on it.
Posted by Zach at 8:42:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Dogs. clones.
This is just totally wrong.
A Pastor murdered his own wife after she caught him sexually abusing his own children. He then stuffed her in a freezer. The police found the filthy hypocrite at his church. He was doing a sermon on love and Christ. So what do the police do? They wait until he is finished!
Posted by Zach at 8:12:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Hippocracy. pastors. murder.
Saturday, July 12, 2008
Kidnapping crackers.
I read a blog article. It is painfully long. Here it is:

There are days when it is agony to read the news, because people are so goddamned stupid. Petty and stupid. Hateful and stupid. Just plain stupid. And nothing makes them stupider than religion.

Here’s a story that will destroy your hopes for a reasonable humanity.

Webster Cook says he smuggled a Eucharist, a small bread wafer that to Catholics symbolic of the Body of Christ after a priest blesses it, out of mass, didn’t eat it as he was supposed to do, but instead walked with it.

This isn’t the stupid part yet. He walked off with a cracker that was put in his mouth, and people in the church fought with him to get it back. It is just a cracker!

Catholics worldwide became furious.

Would you believe this isn’t hyperbole? People around the world are actually extremely angry about this — Webster Cook has been sent death threats over his cracker. Those are just kooks, you might say, but here is the considered, measured response of the local diocese:

“We don’t know 100% what Mr. Cooks motivation was,” said Susan Fani a spokesperson with the local Catholic diocese. “However, if anything were to qualify as a hate crime, to us this seems like this might be it.”

We just expect the University to take this seriously,” she added “To send a message to not just Mr. Cook but the whole community that this kind of really complete sacrilege will not be tolerated.”

Wait, what? Holding a cracker hostage is now a hate crime? The murder of Matthew Shephard was a hate crime. The murder of James Byrd Jr. was a hate crime. This is a goddamned cracker. Can you possibly diminish the abuse of real human beings any further?

Well, you could have a priest compare this event to a kidnapping.

“It is hurtful,” said Father Migeul Gonzalez with the Diocese. “Imagine if they kidnapped somebody and you make a plea for that individual to please return that loved one to the family.”

Gonzalez said the Diocese is willing to meet with Cook and help him understand the importance of the Eucharist in hopes of him returning it. The Diocese is dispatching a nun to UCF’s campus to oversee the next mass, protect the Eucharist and in hopes Cook will return it.

I like the idea of sending a scary nun to guard the ceremony at the next mass. But even better…let’s send Webster Cook to hell!

Gonzalez said intentionally abusing the Eucharist is classified as a mortal sin in the Catholic church, the most severe possible. If it’s not returned, the community of faith will have to ask for forgiveness.

“We have to make acts of reparation,” Gonzalez said. “The whole community is going to turn to prayer. We’ll ask the Lord for pardon, forgiveness, peace, not only for the whole community affected by it, but also for [Cook], we offer prayers for him as well.”

Get some perspective, man. IT’S A CRACKER.

And of course, Bill Donohue is outraged (I know, Donohue is going to die of apoplexy someday when a gnat violates his oatmeal, so this isn’t saying much).

For a student to disrupt Mass by taking the Body of Christ hostage–regardless of the alleged nature of his grievance–is beyond hate speech. That is why the UCF administration needs to act swiftly and decisively in seeing that justice is done. All options should be on the table, including expulsion.

Oh, beyond hate speech. Where does this fit on the Shoah scale, Bill? It shouldn’t even register, but here is Wild-Eyed Bill the Offended calling for the expulsion of a student…for not swallowing a cracker.

Would you believe that the mealy-mouthed president of the university, John Hitt, is avoiding defending his student is instead playing up the importance of the Catholic church to the university? Of course you would. That’s what university presidents do. Bugger the students, keep the donors and the state reps happy.

Unfortunately, Webster Cook has now returned the cracker. Why?

Webster just wants all of this to go away. Especially now that he feels his life is in danger.

That’s right. Crazy Christian fanatics right here in our own country have been threatening to kill a young man over a cracker. This is insane. These people are demented fuckwits. And Cook is not out of the fire yet — that Fox News story ends with an open incitement to cause him further misery.

University officials said, that as for right now, Webster Cook is not in trouble. If anyone or any group wants to file a formal complaint with the University through the student judicial system, they can. If that happens, Webster will go through a hearing either in front of an administrative panel or a panel of his peers.

Got that? If you don’t like what Webster Cook did, all you have to do is complain to the university, and they will do the dirty work for you of making his college experience miserable. And don’t assume the university would support Cook; the college is now having armed university police officers standing guard during mass.

I find this all utterly unbelievable. It’s like Dark Age superstition and malice, all thriving with the endorsement of secular institutions here in 21st century America. It is a culture of deluded lunatics calling the shots and making human beings dance to their mythical bunkum.

So, what to do. I have an idea. Can anyone out there score me some consecrated communion wafers? There’s no way I can personally get them — my local churches have stakes prepared for me, I’m sure — but if any of you would be willing to do what it takes to get me some, or even one, and mail it to me, I’ll show you sacrilege, gladly, and with much fanfare. I won’t be tempted to hold it hostage (no, not even if I have a choice between returning the Eucharist and watching Bill Donohue kick the pope in the balls, which would apparently be a more humane act than desecrating a goddamned cracker), but will instead treat it with profound disrespect and heinous cracker abuse, all photographed and presented here on the web. I shall do so joyfully and with laughter in my heart. If you can smuggle some out from under the armed guards and grim nuns hovering over your local communion ceremony, just write to me and I’ll send you my home address.

Just wait. Now there’ll be a team of Jesuits assigned to rifle through my mail every day.
Posted by Zach at 10:33:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Crackers.
Something I need to do.
blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah blah

ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh, I needed to do that.
Posted by Zach at 10:27:00 AM 1 comments Links to this post
Friday, July 4, 2008
mercury shrinkes.
MERCURY SHRANK!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Posted by Zach at 3:53:00 PM 1 comments Links to this post
Labels: Mercury.
My mom’s annoying habit of…………………………singing
Yes, That’s right singing. My mom practices singing. To her it doesn’t matter where or when. She once did it in the bathroom while I was trying to read.
Posted by Zach at 3:45:00 PM 1 comments Links to this post
Labels: Singing. personal.
on the last one (Recent Round-up (Part 3))
Sorry if you haven’t been listening to the news and have no idea what I was talking about.

Robert Mugabe is a dictator in the country of Zimbabwe. He is ruling by bullying people into submission. Also he is generally a bad leader (For instance he ruined the Zimbabwean economy.)
Posted by Zach at 3:11:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Zimbabwe.
Recent round-up (Part 3)
I am sooooooooooooooooooooo surprised. Robert Mugabe (Bully/Dictator on 6th term) has won the
Zimbabwe election.

HE DID NOT EVEN HAVE ANY COMPETITION!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

That was sooooooooooooooo pointless!!!!!!!!!!!

Posted by Zach at 2:47:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Zimbabwe. Pointlessness.
Recent round-up (Part 2)
There is something interesting at (@#$%&@#) National (see here) So apparently humans wore shoes 40,000 years ago.
Posted by Zach at 2:12:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: National Geographic. Ancient Humans. Shoes.
Recent round-up (Part 1)
Sorry that I haven’t been writing on my blog. I have had trouble with my Google Email address. I had to finally change my password.
Posted by Zach at 1:59:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Google. Email. Blogs.
Sunday, May 18, 2008
The bad alphabet

The BAD Alphabet!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

A: @#$

B: @#$%&

C: @#$%

D: @#$%&

F:@#$% …

Yeah its really bad.
Posted by Zach at 7:41:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Cursing. Swearing. ABCs.
Saturday, May 17, 2008
Cyclone Nargis and the myanmar generals

UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown has condemned Burma’s military government for not allowing international aid to reach the victims of Cyclone Nargis.*

Not very surprising.

*from BBC

Posted by Zach at 1:26:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Myanmar.gordon brown.
Electric cat and mouse
Now here is something interesting. (From the BBC)

The country’s main electricity company says a cat chasing a mouse caused a 72-hour blackout in parts of the capital, Tirana.

Something new.

The animals ran into an area of high-voltage cables and were electrocuted, a spokeswoman for the firm – Kesh – told Reuters news agency.

Sorry I for got. The country is Albania.
Posted by Zach at 8:45:00 AM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: cats.mice.Albania.
Thursday, May 15, 2008
John McCain and the troops
This is what the BBC said:

US Republican presidential hopeful John McCain has said that, if elected, he would aim to remove most US troops from Iraq by 2013.

Posted by Zach at 2:55:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: troops.
Monday, April 28, 2008
Ethnic homework
I have some homework for readers…

Ethnic Group: Pashtu

Where are they found?

What language/languages are spoken by this group?

What religion/religions are they?

Any sort of conflict involving this group?

Posted by Zach at 7:07:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Geography.
That last one (A whole book of this!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!) had a bit of a problem.
Posted by Zach at 7:04:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
I have found a super search engine!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Posted by Zach at 6:27:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: search engines.
Thursday, April 24, 2008
A whole book of this!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Check this out. It’s from the CIA World Factbook.

This page was last updated on 15 April, 2008

Map of Egypt

Legend: DefinitionDefinition Field ListingField Listing Rank OrderRank Order

Introduction Egypt Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world’s great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt’s government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt’s growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

Geography Egypt Top of Page
Definition Field Listing
Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area – comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,665 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Definition Field Listing
2,450 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Definition Field Listing
desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Definition Field Listing
vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.92%
permanent crops: 0.5%
other: 96.58% (2005)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
34,220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:
Definition Field Listing
86.8 cu km (1997)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
Definition Field Listing
total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8%/6%/86%)
per capita: 923 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment – current issues:
Definition Field Listing
agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment – international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography – note:
Definition Field Listing
controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

People Egypt Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
81,713,517 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 31.8% (male 13,292,961/female 12,690,711)
15-64 years: 63.5% (male 26,257,440/female 25,627,390)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 1,636,560/female 2,208,455) (2008 est.)
Median age:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24.5 years
male: 24.1 years
female: 24.9 years (2008 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.682% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.12 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5.09 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 28.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 30.06 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total population: 71.85 years
male: 69.3 years
female: 74.52 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
2.72 children born/woman (2008 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
12,000 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
700 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:
Definition Field Listing
degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Egyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
Definition Field Listing
Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
Definition Field Listing
Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.4%
male: 83%
female: 59.4% (2005 est.)

Government Egypt Top of Page
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in September
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
26 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma’iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, As Suways, Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa’id, Dumyat, Janub Sina’, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina’, Suhaj
Definition Field Listing
28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Definition Field Listing
11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980, 25 May 2005, and 26 March 2007
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed Mohamed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note – a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People’s Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011
election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote – Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral system consists of the People’s Assembly or Majlis al-Sha’b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura that traditionally functions only in a consultative role but 2007 constitutional amendments could grant the Council new powers (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members)
elections: People’s Assembly – three-phase voting – last held 7 and 20 November, 1 December 2005;(next to be held November-December 2010); Advisory Council – last held June 2007 (next to be held May-June 2010)
election results: People’s Assembly – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NDP 84, Tagammu 1, independents 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
National Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Moussa Mustafa MOUSSA]
note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government; only parties with representation in elected bodies are listed
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAK’s potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; only trade unions and professional associations affiliated with the government are officially sanctioned
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr.
embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band

Economy Egypt Top of Page
Economy – overview:
Definition Field Listing
Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. In the last 30 years, the government has reformed the highly centralized economy it inherited from President Gamel Abdel NASSER. In 2005, Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF’s government reduced personal and corporate tax rates, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises. The stock market boomed, and GDP grew about 5% per year in 2005-06, and topped 7% in 2007. Despite these achievements, the government has failed to raise living standards for the average Egyptian, and has had to continue providing subsidies for basic necessities. The subsidies have contributed to a sizeable budget deficit – roughly 7.5% of GDP in 2007 – and represent a significant drain on the economy. Foreign direct investment has increased significantly in the past two years, but the NAZIF government will need to continue its aggressive pursuit of reforms in order to sustain the spike in investment and growth and begin to improve economic conditions for the broader population. Egypt’s export sectors – particularly natural gas – have bright prospects.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$431.9 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):
Definition Field Listing
$127.9 billion (2007 est.)
GDP – real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.2% (2007 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$5,400 (2007 est.)
GDP – composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 13.8%
industry: 41.1%
services: 45.1% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
22.49 million (2007 est.)
Labor force – by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 32%
industry: 17%
services: 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.1% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
20% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2000)
Distribution of family income – Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
34.4 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
8.8% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
21.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $37.47 billion
expenditures: $44.48 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
105.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture – products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Definition Field Listing
textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
13.8% (2007 est.)
Electricity – production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
102.5 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity – consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
84.49 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity – exports:
Definition Field Listing
946 million kWh (2005)
Electricity – imports:
Definition Field Listing
168 million kWh (2005)
Oil – production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
688,100 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil – consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
635,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil – exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
152,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil – imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
69,860 bbl/day (2004)
Oil – proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.7 billion bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas – production:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
40.76 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas – consumption:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
32.81 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas – exports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
7.951 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas – imports:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas – proved reserves:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
1.589 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$3.115 billion (2007 est.)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$27.42 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports – commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
Exports – partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 12.1%, US 11.3%, Spain 8.7%, UK 5.5%, France 5.4%, Syria 5.1%, Saudi Arabia 4.3%, Germany 4.2% (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$40.48 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports – commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports – partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 11.4%, China 8.3%, Germany 6.6%, Italy 5.4%, Saudi Arabia 5%, France 4.6% (2006)
Economic aid – recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $925.9 million (2005)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$31.14 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt – external:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$29.9 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$37.66 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$1.115 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
$93.48 billion (2006)
Currency (code):
Definition Field Listing
Egyptian pound (EGP)
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Egyptian pounds per US dollar – 5.67 (2007), 5.725 (2006), 5.78 (2005), 6.1962 (2004), 5.8509 (2003)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July – 30 June

Communications Egypt Top of Page
Telephones – main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
10.808 million (2006)
Telephones – mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
18.001 million (2006)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Telecom Egypt, the landline monopoly, has been increasing service availability and in 2006 fixed-line density stood at 14 per 100 persons; as of 2007 there were three mobile-cellular networks and service is expanding rapidly
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code – 20; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 AND SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); satellite earth stations – 4 (2 Intelsat – Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
98 (September 1995)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet hosts:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
5,363 (2007)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
6 million (2006)

Transportation Egypt Top of Page
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
88 (2007)
Airports – with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
under 914 m: 5 (2007)
Airports – with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2007)
Definition Field Listing
3 (2007)
Definition Field Listing
condensate 483 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 6,466 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,518 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km (2007)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 5,063 km
standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2006)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 92,370 km
paved: 74,820 km
unpaved: 17,550 km (2004)
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3,500 km
note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2006)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
total: 77 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,032,116 GRT/1,553,065 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 33, container 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 10
foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 1, Greece 8, Lebanon 1)
registered in other countries: 55 (Bolivia 1, Cambodia 14, Georgia 14, Honduras 4, North Korea 1, Panama 13, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 1, St Kitts and Nevis 2, St Vincent and The Grenadines 4) (2007)
Ports and terminals:
Definition Field Listing
Ayn Sukhnah, Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Sidi Kurayr, Suez

Military Egypt Top of Page
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military service age and obligation:
Definition Field Listing
18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 18,347,560
females age 18-49: 17,683,904 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 15,540,234
females age 18-49: 14,939,378 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males age 18-49: 802,920
females age 18-49: 764,176 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing Rank Order
3.4% (2005 est.)

Transnational Issues Egypt Top of Page
Disputes – international:
Definition Field Listing
while Sudan retains claim to the Hala’ib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s and Egypt has invested in and effectively administers the area; Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip to deter terrorist, smuggling, and other illegal activities; Egypt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify themselves as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
Definition Field Listing
refugees (country of origin): 60,000 – 80,000 (Iraq), 70,255 (Palestinian Territories), 13,446 (Sudan) (2006)
Trafficking in persons:
Definition Field Listing
current situation: Egypt is a transit country for women trafficked from Eastern Europe to Israel for the purpose of sexual exploitation; these women generally arrive as tourists and are subsequently trafficked through the Sinai Desert by Bedouin tribes; men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are believed to be trafficked through the Sinai Desert to Israel and Europe for labor exploitation; some Egyptian children from rural areas are trafficked within the country to work as domestic servants or laborers in the agriculture industry
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Egypt is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to address trafficking over the past year, particularly in the area of law enforcement
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations

This page was last updated on 15 April, 2008

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Posted by Zach at 6:36:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Geography.Books.
Wednesday, April 23, 2008
King Duncan The First

King Duncan I (or Donnechad mac Crinan in Gaelic) was born in 1001. His mother was Princess Bethoc (Beatrix). His father was Crinan, the Lay Abbot of Dunkeld. He had a brother named Maldred. In 1018 Owen the Bald died leeving the throne of Strathclyde open for Duncan. He was then king of Strathclyde at age 17..

In 1030 at age 29 he married Sibyl of northumbria. In 1034 at age 33 he became king of Scotland. He was the first king of a united Scotland. He was also Scotland’s first priest king because he was son of and hereditary heir to his father Crinan, the Lay Abbot of Dunkeld. The idea of a priest monarch was from then on embedded in Scottish culture.

Soon after his succession to the throne There was a series of riots that even the captain of his army, Banqo, could not contain. A military council was created and Macbeth managed to gain control of King Duncan’s army. He managed to subdue the revolt and by doing that he managed to get more popular with the king. In 1040 he invaded Northumbria to the south and Caithness at the same time. He lost four battles in a row ending with his death at Burghead. He was killed by his own men led by Macbeth after a battle. They were really unhappy with him.
Posted by Zach at 6:56:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Global Warming, a Global Warning.

We are having the highest levels of greenhouse gases in 650,000 years. That is Global warming. This

is what scientists predict will result: 50,000,000 environmental refugees by the year 2010, Arctic ice- free within 50 years, and billions of deaths this century. Development of an ice-free Northwest passage would create maritime problems between the US and Canada.

Global warming already leads to 150 thousand deaths a year according to a team of health and climate scientists at the World health organization. The causes are heat-stroke, malnutrition, exacerbated spread of disease, floods, and droughts. Also, melting glaciers are causing earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.

There are other significant impacts already occurring as a result of global warming. For example, an Alaskan village is falling into the sea. In summer large amounts of the Northwest passage are now ice free. Arctic temperature has risen 3-4F in the past century. Climate change is now a major threat to indigenous people and wildlife. The indigenous people of the Bering sea and another sea around Russia predicted these changes but were treated with skepticism.

If we help NOW we can avoid the worst.

Posted by Zach at 6:53:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: Global warming.
on the last yogurt one
It is a bit old now. Isn’t it?
Posted by Zach at 6:48:00 PM 0 comments Links to this post
Labels: outdatedness.
My two-part Yogurt diary!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Dear L. Bulgaricus,

Around nighttime I was going home in a car when I was just getting car sick when we started to talk about yeast and eventually it got to yogurt an the bacteria in the yogurt. Mom promised me we could make yogurt and eventually it got to science project status.


Dear L. Bulgaricus,

Soon after me and mom got up we started on a science project (just as promised) about yogurt!!! It’ been so fun. I researched about yogurt, bacteria, and how to make yogurt, while mom cooked. The bacteria species L. Bulgaricus was named in 1905 by a Bulgarian doctor(Stamen Grigorov) after Bulgaria. L. Bulgaricus is one of the bacteria used in yogurt.

Hello world!

Posted On March 4, 2009

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